Seroprevalence and associated factors of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) types among men in the multinational him study

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Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Recently a 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) prophylactic vaccine was licensed. Seroprevalence prior to vaccine dissemination is needed for monitoring vaccine effectiveness over time. Few studies have assessed the seroprevalence of 9vHPV types in men. Objectives To investigate the seroprevalence of 9vHPV vaccine types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Methods Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Archived serum specimens collected at enrollment were tested for antibodies against nine HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based multiplex serologic assay. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and sexual behavior data at enrollment were collected through a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence and logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with seropositivity of type-specific and grouped (i.e. 9vHPV, high-risk 9vHPV, low risk 9vHPV, and five-additional) HPV types. Results Overall, 28.3% of men were seropositive for at least one of the 9vHPV vaccine types, 14.0% for at least one of the seven high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) and 11.2% for at least one of the five high-risk types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) not included in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and 17.4% for at least one of the low-risk types (6/11). In multivariate analyses, odds ratios adjusted (AOR) for country of residence, age, marital status, smoking, number of anal sex lifetime partners, compared to men with no anal sex lifetime partners, men with ≥2 partners were more likely to be seropositive for grouped HPV [(9vHPV: AOR 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-4.54), (high-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.18; 95%CI: 1.05-4.50) and (low-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.12; 95%CI: 1.12-4.03)], and individual HPV types 6, 16, 33 and 58 with AORs ranging from 2.19 to 7.36. Compared to men aged 18-30 years, men older than 30 years were significantly more likely to be seropositive for any high-risk 9vHPV, in addition to individual types 18 and 45; and compared to never smokers, current smokers were more likely to be seropositive to 9vHPV, low-risk 9vHPV and HPV 6. In contrast, married men were less likely to be seropositive to any high-risk 9vHPV and individual HPV types 18 and 31 when compared to single men. Conclusions These data indicate that exposure to the nine HPV types included in the 9vHPV vaccine is common in men and that seropositivity to 9vHPV vaccine types is associated with older age and the lifetime number of anal sex partners. Nine valent HPV vaccination of males and females has the potential to prevent HPV related diseases and transmission in both sexes.



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