Distribution and factors associated with salivary secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations

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Oral Diseases


Objectives: This cross-sectional study examined the distribution and correlates of salivary secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) concentrations within a multinational cohort of men. Methods: Extracellular SLPI was measured in oral gargle cell supernatants of 378 men from three countries using an ELISA-based assay. Risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Factors associated with SLPI were assessed using linear and logistic regression for continuous and categorical SLPI, respectively. Results: Among men aged 18–73 years, the median SLPI concentration was 492.0 ng ml−1 (range: 2.3–1919.9). In multivariable modeling, men in Brazil and younger men (18–30 years) were more likely to have higher levels of SLPI [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.94–7.59, and aOR 3.84; 95% CI: 1.98–7.43, respectively]. Men with a self-reported sexually transmitted diseases diagnosis in the past 6 months were more likely to have higher SLPI levels (aOR 2.98; 95% CI: 1.1–7.83) and men reporting bleeding/swollen gums were less likely to have higher SLPI (aOR 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15–0.79). Similar results were observed for linear regression models. Conclusions: Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations varied significantly by country and decreased with increasing age. The interaction between SLPI, modifiable factors, and oral infections that influence cancer risk warrants further investigation.

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