Permeation-Enhancing Nanoparticle Formulation to Enable Oral Absorption of Enoxaparin

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AAPS PharmSciTech


This study tests the hypothesis that association complexes formed between enoxaparin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) augment permeation across the gastrointestinal mucosa due to improved encapsulation of this hydrophilic macromolecule within biocompatible poly (lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA RG 503) nanoparticles. When compared with free enoxaparin, association with CTAB increased drug encapsulation efficiency within PLGA nanoparticles from 40.3 ± 3.4 to 99.1 ± 1.0%. Drug release from enoxaparin/CTAB PLGA nanoparticles was assessed in HBSS, pH 7.4 and FASSIFV2, pH 6.5, suggesting effective protection of PLGA-encapsulated enoxaparin from unfavorable intestinal conditions. The stability of the enoxaparin/CTAB ion pair complex was pH-dependent, resulting in more rapid dissociation under simulated plasma conditions (i.e., pH 7.4) than in the presence of a mild acidic gastrointestinal environment (i.e., pH 6.5). The intestinal flux of enoxaparin complexes across in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers was greater when encapsulated within PLGA nanoparticles. Limited changes in transepithelial transport of PLGA-encapsulated enoxaparin complexes in the presence of increasing CTAB concentrations suggest a significant contribution of size-dependent passive diffusion as the predominant transport mechanism facilitating intestinal absorption. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]



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