Economic Evaluation of Pharmacist-Led Digital Health Interventions: A Systematic Review

Document Type


Publication Title

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health


There has been growing interest in integrating digital technologies in healthcare. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the economic value of pharmacist-led digital interventions. PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane databases were searched to select studies that had conducted economic evaluations of digital interventions by pharmacists for the period from January 2001 to February 2022. Economic evidence from 14 selected studies was synthesized in our analysis. Pharmacists used telephones, computers, web-based interventions, videotapes, smartphones, and multiple technologies for their digital interventions. Prior studies have reported the results of telephone-based interventions to be cost-effective. Alternatively, these interventions were found to be cost-effective when reevaluated with recently cited willingness-to-pay thresholds. In addition, pharmacist-led interventions based on computers, web-based interventions, smartphones, and multiple technologies have been reported to be cost-effective in previous studies. However, videotape-based intervention was found cost-ineffective because there was no significant difference in outcomes between the intervention and the usual care groups. If this intervention had been intensive enough to improve outcomes in the intervention group, favorable cost-effectiveness results could have been obtained. The economic evidence in the previous studies represented short-term economic values. Economic evaluations of the long-term value of digital interventions are warranted in future studies.



Publication Date