New antimicrobial treatment options for severe Gram-negative infections

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Current Opinion in Critical Care


Purpose of reviewThis review will provide rationale for the development of new antibiotics to treat severe or multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. It will also provide an overview of recently approved and pipeline antibiotics for severe/MDR Gram-negative infections.Recent findingsMDR Gram-negative infections are recognized as critical threats by global and national organizations and carry a significant morbidity and mortality risk. Increasing antibiotic resistance amongst Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with difficult-to-treat-resistance has made both empiric and definitive treatment of these infections increasingly problematic. In recent years, several antibiotics have been approved for treatment of MDR Gram-negative infections and ongoing clinical trials are poised to provide additional options to clinicians' armamentarium. These agents include various β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, eravacycline, plazomicin and cefiderocol.SummarySevere/MDR Gram-negative infections continue to be important infections due to their impact on patient outcomes, especially in critically ill and immunocompromised hosts. The availability of new antibiotics offers an opportunity to improve empiric and definitive treatment of these infections.

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