Ceftriaxone resistance and adequacy of initial antibiotic therapy in community onset bacterial pneumonia

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Medicine (United States)


Much remains unknown about the impact of initial antibiotic adequacy on mortality in community onset bacterial pneumonia (COBP). Therefore, we performed a study to determine how the adequacy of initial antibiotic therapy affects in-hospital mortality for patients with COBP. We carried out a retrospective cohort study among the 11 BJC Healthcare community and academic hospitals in Missouri and Illinois. The electronic medical records for BJC Healthcare were queried to obtain a set of patient admissions with culture positive (respiratory or blood) COBP admitted from January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2019. Patients with COBP required an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 diagnostic code for pneumonia, admission to the hospital through an emergency department, a chest radiograph with an infiltrate, an abnormal white blood cell count or temperature, an order for 1 or more new antibiotics, and a positive respiratory or blood culture. Antibiotic selection was deemed adequate if the patient had organisms susceptible to at least one of the antibiotics received according to in vitro testing using standard laboratory breakpoints. Among 36,645 screened pneumonia admissions, 1843 met criteria for culture positive COBP. Eight hundred nineteen (44.4%) had ceftriaxone-resistant (CTX-R) organisms and 1024 had ceftriaxone-sensitive (CTX-S) organisms. The most common CTX-R pathogens were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (46.9%), Pseudomonas species (38.4%), and Escherichia coli (4.5%). On the day of admission 71% of all patients were given adequate antibiotic treatment (62.2% of CTX-R and 77.9% of CTX-S). Unnecessarily broad initial treatment was administered to 57.1% of CTX-S patients. In a logistic regression model accounting for comorbidities and severity of illness, inadequate therapy on the day of admission was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (P=.005). Among CTX-S patients who were adequately treated, initial use of unnecessarily broad antibiotics was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (P=.003). Ceftriaxone resistance was common in this cohort of culture positive COBP patients. Inappropriate coverage on day of admission was associated with greater likelihood of in-hospital mortality.



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