Experience with liposomal amphotericin B in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy

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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy


Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a safe, effective, and convenient treatment strategy for patients receiving intravenous antimicrobials in the outpatient setting; however, data are limited describing the use and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB). Records of patients receiving L-AMB OPAT between 1/1/2015 and 7/31/2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary objective was to describe the OPAT patient population discharged on L-AMB and evaluate factors associated with readmission and adverse events (AEs). Analysis was performed to evaluate for predictors of worse outcomes. Forty-two patients (67% male, median age 50 years) were identified, most of whom were treated for histoplasmosis. The most common doses of L-AMB were 3 mg/kg (n = 16, 38%) or 5 mg/kg (n = 14, 33%) based on actual body weight. Twenty-six (62%) patients completed their anticipated course of L-AMB. Twenty-two (52%) patients were readmitted within 30 days of discharge; median time to readmission was 11 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5 to 18). While hypokalemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) were common, occurring in 26 (62%) and 20 (48%) patients, respectively, only 5 (12%) were readmitted to the hospital due to L-AMB-associated AEs. Ninety percent of patients achieved at least partial renal recovery within 30 days after L-AMB discontinuation. Factors significantly associated with AKI include higher L-AMB dose, lower serum potassium levels after therapy initiation, and receipt of potassium supplementation at discharge. L-AMB is associated with significant AEs; however, these results suggest that treatment is feasible in the outpatient setting with close monitoring, as the majority of AEs were managed effectively in an outpatient without long-term sequelae.



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