Post-Dialysis Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy in Patients Receiving Intermittent High-Flux Hemodialysis

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Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) are at increased risk of infection, which represents a leading cause of mortality in this population. The use of additional vascular access devices such as peripherally inserted central catheters to treat such infections should be minimized in patients with ESRD requiring IHD in order to mitigate complications such as infection and thrombosis and to maintain venous patency for hemodialysis access. Intravenous antimicrobial dosing following IHD has the advantages of avoiding additional access devices and providing convenience for patients and providers. Vancomycin, cefazolin, and aminoglycosides have historically been regarded as the primary intravenous antimicrobials administered with IHD given their relatively low cost, convenient dosing, and longevity of clinical use. Despite this, a growing body of literature is evaluating the use of an expanded list of antimicrobials that may be employed using post-dialysis dosing for patients requiring IHD; however, the available data are largely limited to pharmacokinetic studies and small cohorts of infected patients or uninfected subjects. Post-dialytic dosing of intravenous antimicrobials may be considered on a patient-by-patient basis after careful consideration of clinical, microbiological, and logistical factors that may influence the probability of treatment success. This document reviews and evaluates currently available information on the post-dialytic administration of an expanded list of intravenous antimicrobials in the setting of thrice-weekly, high-flux IHD.

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