The prophylactic role for the human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine in males

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Annals of Pharmacotherapy


OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in males. DATA SOURCE: PubMed (1966-March 2010) was searched using the terms human papillomavirus, human papillomavirus vaccine, quadrivalent, males, cancer, and genital warts. Reference citations were reviewed for relevant information. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All studies including humans and published in English with data describing HPV quadrivalent vaccine administration in males were evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS: The HPV quadrivalent vaccine is currently recommended in females, but its role in males is still being defined. Three clinical trials evaluated the immunogenicity and tolerability of the vaccine in more than 1100 males 9-26 years of age. Greater than 99.5% of males seroconverted for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 at 1 month post-completion and titers were found to be numerically higher than those in females 16-26 years old. One study found that immune response persisted in >92.5% of males at 1 year. The results show high efficacy against detection of new anogenital lesions in males 29 months after receiving the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. In addition, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine appears to be well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects being syncope, fever, local site reactions, dizziness, nausea, and headache. CONCLUSIONS: The HPV quadrivalent vaccine appears to be safe and induces an effective immune response in males. It may also decrease the incidence of anogenital and penile cancer, although current data are limited in number and duration of follow-up. Further analysis of the long-term immunogenicity and effects on HPV-associated complications is needed.

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