Improving a Leadership Scale: Applying Rasch Analysis to Student Pharmacists' Attitudes and Beliefs About Leadership

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American journal of pharmaceutical education


OBJECTIVE: Leadership development is necessary for student pharmacists to become pharmacist leaders, but no readily usable standard measurement of student attitudes toward and beliefs about leadership exists. To assess the reliability and validity evidence for using the Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (LABS-III), originally developed and validated in Malaysia, for use with student pharmacists in the United States. METHODS: The 2-unit leadership course was piloted among second- and third-year students in a public college of pharmacy with a 4-year doctor of pharmacy curriculum. The participating students completed the LABS-III during the first and last classes as part of a quality improvement measure for course enhancement. Rasch analysis was then used to assess the reliability and validity evidence for the LABS-III. RESULTS: A total of 24 students participated in the pilot course. The pre and postcourse surveys had 100% and 92% response rates, respectively. After Rasch analysis model fit was achieved, the item separation for the 14 nonextreme items was 2.19 with an item reliability of 0.83. The person separation index was 2.16 with a person reliability of 0.82. CONCLUSION: The Rasch analysis revealed that the number of LABS-III items should be decreased and that the 3-point response scale should be used to improve functionality and use in classroom settings for PharmD students in the United States. Further research is needed to augment the reliability and validity evidence of the modified instrument for use at other United States colleges of pharmacy.

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