Endocrine pharmacotherapy education in United States colleges and schools of pharmacy

Document Type


Publication Title

JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy


Background: As Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) curricula are revised, it is important to identify what to retain and prioritize; previous studies have not evaluated the endocrine content within curricula at United States (U.S.) schools and colleges of pharmacy. Objective: To determine the breadth of endocrine instruction and assessment within preadvanced pharmacy practice experience (pre-APPE) coursework in the clinical sciences across U.S. Pharm.D. programs. Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study of U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy was completed evaluating the 2018 to 19 academic year. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Categorical variables were assessed using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and ordinal variables were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, with a priori significance set at.05. The study was approved by the Presbyterian College Institutional Review Board with exempt status. Results: Fifty-eight of 142 (40.8%) programs participated. Contact hours for required endocrine content varied, with 57% responding with more than 30 hours. Among 15 topics, only types 1 and 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders were required at all programs. For two-thirds of the topics, the perception of topic importance differed between programs that cover and those that do not cover the topic (P <.05). The most common assessment strategies included case studies (100%), multiple choice questions (97%), SOAP note writing, and skills demonstrations (72% each). The most common diabetes-related Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) were: evaluating drug therapy, following guidelines, and educating patients (98% each). The most commonly cited barrier to including more endocrine topics was lack of curricular time (88%). Conclusions: Inconsistency in endocrine content within curricula at U.S. PharmD programs includes topics covered, contact hours, and perception of topic importance. Respondents consistently noted their methods appropriately educated student pharmacists to develop diabetes-related EPAs. Development of a standardized endocrine curricula could establish minimal competencies for APPE-readiness.

First Page


Last Page




Publication Date