Instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals towards antibiotic use for the treatment of urinary tract infections: A systematic review

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Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common condition (after upper respiratory tract infections) for which adults receive antibiotics, and this prevalence may contribute to antibiotic resistance. Knowledge and attitudes have been identified as potential determinants of antibiotic prescribing behaviour among healthcare professionals in the treatment and management of UTIs. An instrument that captures prescribers’ baseline knowledge of and attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing for UTIs could inform interventions to enhance prescribing. The current systematic review evaluates the psychometric properties of instruments already available and describes the theoretical constructs they measure. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for published studies and instruments. The Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments checklist was used to assess the psychometric quality reporting of the instruments. The items included in each instrument were mapped onto the theoretical constructs underlying knowledge and attitudes using a mixed-theoretical model developed for this study. Results Fourteen studies met the review inclusion criteria. All instruments were available for review. None of the instruments had all the psychometric properties evaluated. Most of the instruments sought to identify knowledge and/or attitude factors influencing antibiotic prescribing for UTIs rather than to measure/assess knowledge and attitudes. Conclusions Few instruments for the assessment of knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals towards antibiotic use and UTI treatment are available. None of the instruments underwent the full development process to ensure that all psychometric properties were met. Furthermore, none of the instruments assessed all domains of knowledge and attitudes. Therefore, the ability of the instruments to provide a robust measurement of knowledge and attitudes is doubtful. There is a need for an instrument that fully and accurately measures the constructs of knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals in the treatment of UTIs.



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